During the processes like bio-separations, mining, nuclear recovery, oils sand extraction methods, processing of Perfumes, fragrances and essential oils and other processes involving two liquid medium for the separation of a desired solute. The usage of liquid medium essential due to certain factors like temperature sensitive product, high purity requirement, and high boiling point of components in a small fraction. It is favourable for solution having small boiling point difference and high solubility difference, presence of azeotrope in solution.
The process of chemical separation categorized into three simple steps involving feeding solvent and the feed solution, processing in extractor and output of the solution. The first phase of the separation involves the mixing of the liquid phases and dispersion of the solute as per the solubility of the media. The second phase involves the Phase separation of the liquid media not two different phase based upon the solubility of the solute. The phase difference based on the density of the two liquid formed in the solution. The final or third step involves the collection of phases and splitting of raffinate for the extract required to be separated from the solution.
Liquid liquid extraction method aims at the extraction of a solute from a liquid media using another liquid media. The basic principle behind the extraction process depends on the solubility of the targeted solute. It is an equilibrium limited reactor. The most important task in performing the process of separation of solute using fluid media is a based on the selection of the solvent for the solubility of the solute. The key factors noted in the selection of the process include high distribution coefficient (selectivity) for solute, low distribution coefficient for the carrier, a remarkable difference in volatility of the carrier and solute. The surface tension in the solution should maintain at a level that make the component easy to disperse and coalesce. A high-density difference of the solvent and the solute required for the separation accomplished via force of gravity. There should be stability to maintain the reuse of the solvents. The selected solvent should be inert to components present in the solution. Low viscosity of the fluid maximizes the mass transfer process. The solvent selection for performing the separation do the solute need not form an emulsion or foam with the solution. It should be non-toxic, non-flammable and should be easily available and cheap.
There are another method of distillation, separation for the separation of the components using liquid media. Structured packing is one of the material involves the separation of liquid components based upon the size of the material desired for separation.
Keywords: Structured packing India, Liquid liquid extraction
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